Hemorrhoids • CTAmed
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Hemorrhoids

What are hemorrhoids?

We are talking about the expansion of veins in the anus. The mechanism for the formation of nodes lies in increased blood flow in the arterial and venous networks. This vascular network forms a vicious circle and eventually leads to venous insufficiency and nodule formation.

There are two types of nodes: internal (deeper) and external (superficial, located next to the anus).

Hemorrhoidal nodes

How common are hemorrhoids?

Hemorrhoids are widespread and cause suffering to approximately 30% of the population.

What symptoms are common?

Usually symptoms depend on the type of hemorrhoids.

For external hemorrhoids:

  • itching and discomfort in the anus;
  • pain;
  • swelling;
  • bleeding;
  • sometimes a blood clot forms inside the node, which leads to significant pain, swelling and inflammation;
  • problems of an aesthetic nature.

For internal hemorrhoids:

In most cases they cannot be seen or palpated, but they can cause the following phenomena:

  • blood in stool;
  • pain when nodes prolapse into the anus.

What treatments are available to me?

  • conservative treatment with ointments and baths;
  • surgical treatment:
    • ligation of hemorrhoids, after which the flow of blood into them stops, and they eventually fall off;
    • an operation during which an incision is made in the anus and the nodes are removed.
  • microinvasive treatment. An innovative method accepted throughout the world, which includes catheterization and embolization of arteries supplying blood nodes.

This procedure is performed under local anesthesia. A puncture is performed in the groin area or on the arm, with simultaneous visualization of all arterial branches that contribute to the formation of nodes, which allows for more effective embolization and achieving the best results. After identifying the arteries leading to the pathology, they are embolized using coils.

What are the advantages of microinvasive treatment compared to surgery?

  • quick recovery and return to everyday life; the patient can be discharged on the day of the procedure;
  • painless procedure, unlike surgery. No postoperative recovery period;
  • possibility not to use anesthesia;
  • minimal complications;
  • complete embolization of all branches of the arteries leading to the formation of hemorrhoids;
  • the success rate of the microinvasive procedure is 70%, which coincides with the effectiveness of surgical intervention;
  • possibility of treating both external and internal hemorrhoids.

Who is this procedure suitable for?

Any patient whose symptoms do not respond to medical and/or conservative treatment and who is unable or unwilling to undergo surgery may be a candidate for embolization. These candidates must have normal renal function.

What happens during the procedure?

The patient lies on the operating table and is connected to screens that monitor his pulse, blood pressure and blood oxygen levels.

The operation is performed by an invasive radiologist who uses local anesthesia to numb the access site, usually in the groin area. Mild sedatives may also be used. Then the doctor creates an access through which he inserts a thin tube (catheter) into the artery and delivers it to the treatment site.

So that the invasive radiologist can clearly see the arteries supplying the prostate gland on the x-ray and determine where they should be closed (embolized), a small amount of contrast agent is injected.

When the doctor sees the arteries supplying blood to the hemorrhoids, they release tiny particles of a substance that cause blockage in the desired arteries. This reduces blood flow and causes hemorrhoids to shrink and disappear. After completion of the procedure, the catheter is removed and a pressure bandage is applied to the puncture site in the groin area. In this case, there are no visible seams on the skin. The tiny access window on the skin is covered with a patch. This procedure is usually completed in less than two hours.

How is the recovery process going?

After embolization, you can be discharged home the same day, and after a few days you can return to work. Hemorrhoids shrink gradually over several months, leading to significant improvement and even disappearance of symptoms.

Hemorrhoidal nodes

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